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About one hundred million years ago, give or take a millenium or two, the earth heaved mightily and thrust up the Brynderwyn and Tangihua Ranges thus defining the southern and eastern boundaries of Whangarei District.

Eighty million years later it heaved again spewing out lava to form the mountains Manaia, Aubrey, Busby and Bream Head.  A cataract of lava broke out from the base of Manaia to cool by the banks of the Hatea River creating the Taurikura causeway.

All was quiet again until about ten thousand years ago, when Hikurangi, Maungatapere and Maunu burst to the surface as scoria cones.

Then as the last Ice Age began to melt the sea level rose, flooding the Hatea, Mangapai and Otaika Rivers and Whangarei Harbour arrived.

Meanwhile plants and animals coped and adapted to the sub-terranean restlessness.  The coal fields of Hikurangi, Kamo and Kiripaka were laid down.  Beneath the sea corals and shells accumulated to build up the limestone deposits of Portland, Hikurangi and Limestone Island.

People came and lived from the land, striking a balance between their wants and life around them.  Their need to conserve resources was a selfevident truth.

Western culture is now catching up.  A protection and replanting programme is underway.  A new balance will be established.  Please respect these efforts while you enjoy the valued features of Whangarei District.

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